REQUIRED TESTS: GENOME, Lipid fraction testing, MPO, LpPLA2, HCY, CRP
If you do not have a suitable genome analysis through a CLIA certified lab (23 and me and My Heritage DNA are acceptable direct to consumer labs) or recent metabolomic testing, please contact NGI. Genome kits can be purchased and de-identified through NGI for $150 and the additional tests can also be purchased through NGI for an additional fee.
Cholesterol is a sterol that is essential to membrane structure and is a precursor to the synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid and vitamin D. Cholesterol itself does not cause atherosclerosis. Only when it is bound to atherogenic lipoproteins and becomes trapped within the arterial wall does it become part of the atherosclerotic process. Standard cholesterol tests only predict 40% of those at risk for heart attack and stroke.
Triglycerides (TAGS): a type of fat found in the blood
- Has long been used as a marker to assess for CVD risk, however, lowering has mixed results in outcomes.
- Strongly associated with insulin and carbohydrate intake
Lipoprotein (LP): Transports fat in water/blood
- Literally made of fat (lipo) and protein.
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL): The “Good” Cholesterol
- Called “good” because it transports cholesterol to your liver to be expelled from your body; “reverse cholesterol transport”
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL): The “Bad” Cholesterol
- Called “bad” because it transports cholesterol to your arteries where it can form plaque and cause heart disease
Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) contain triglycerides and APOe and APOb
- VLDL carries around triglycerides until they are lost to other parts of the body.
- The VLDL are then converted to LDL particles
Apolipoproteins (APO) are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins.
- They transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems.
- The lipid components of lipoproteins are insoluble in water.
- Primary APO’s: APOe, APOb, APOa, APOc, Lpa
Particle size: This is very important to check because the size of your particles is more important than the number of particles you have. People with low LDL cholesterol can still have many small particles. These small particles make it easier for them to invade the walls of the arteries and induce inflammation that ultimately leads to plaque formation. We want large fluffy particles!
Inflammation is a cause AND a result of cardiovascular disease.
- Hs-CRP-reactive protein (CRP) is manufactured throughout the body, especially by immune cells, the liver and by adipocytes.
- During the early phase of an inflammatory stimulus (such as infection or tissue injury) CRP levels rise dramatically.
- The standard CRP test is for those who already have inflammation or those who have significant inflammation and has a range from10 to 1000 mg/L.
- HsCRP has a narrow or functional range that can be used for a predictive function of inflammation and has a range of 0.5 to 10 mg/L.
- Other important markers:
- LpPLA-Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an enzyme that appears to play a role in the inflammation of blood vessels and is thought to promote atherosclerosis.
- Myeloperoxidase (MPO) creates inflammation, is an inflammatory marker and is a storage form of inflammation. It plays a role in the inflammation of the arterial wall and is also released when the inflammation occurs.
- MPO is also stored in the arterial wall and when measured, can be an indicator that there is inflammation in other areas of the body such as an inflamed joint or even gum disease.
- Multiple studies show that the plaque in the arterial walls contains large amounts of MPO.
In the CardioDx, markers are validated alongside their genetic markers to help determine cardiovascular risk and correct disease conditions such as diabetes and heart disease.
Nutrition Counseling is strongly suggested. Please contact the Nutritional Genomics Institute for scheduling.